Are you passing blood in urine?

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Are you passing blood in urine?

Are you passing blood in urine?

Are you passing blood in urine?

 

A bladder tumor is an important cause of blood in the urine after 40 years of age. Gross, painless hematuria is the primary symptom in 85% of patients with a newly diagnosed bladder tumor, and microscopic hematuria (red blood cells are seen under a microscope during a routine examination of urine) occurs in virtually all patients more commonly seen in smokers. Most tumors are cancerous and are a form of urothelial carcinoma (previously known as transitional cell carcinoma). Because urothelial cancer is a cancer of the environment and age, the incidence and prevalence rates increase with age, peaking in the eighth decade of life, and there is a strong association between environmental toxins and urothelial cancer formation. Males are 3 to 4 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than females, presumably because of an increased prevalence of smoking and exposure to environmental toxins. These cancers can be classified as invasive or non-invasive, depending on whether they have involved the bladder muscle layer. Tumors that are non-invasive are less likely to become life-threatening but may need careful follow up since they have a strong tendency to recur. Tumors that invade muscle need more aggressive treatments such as bladder removal (radical cystectomy), radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy depending upon local staging. Radical cystectomy is the gold standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

 

Dr. Rakesh Rai . MS, FRCS, MD, CCT, ASTS Fellow.