Avoid these common bone disorders.

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Avoid these common bone disorders.

Avoid these common bone disorders.

Avoid these common bone disorders.

Like most of the other tissue in the human body, bone is a site for lots of activity at the tissue level. Our body contains 206 bones. There is a continuous process of remodeling of bone that happens daily. Older bone tissue is replaced with newly formed bone tissue.

Calcium is the main ingredient in our bones, which gives strength to our bones. The way to measure the strength is by doing measurements of bone density.

We have the highest bone density when we are young adults, typically between the ages of 25 and 30. Thereafter, as we grow older, our bones gradually lose density.

But there are ways to reduce this loss of bone density – such as vitamins and minerals, medications like estrogen replacement therapy, and strength-training and weight-bearing exercises.

Here are 10 disease of bones which we should try to avoid:

1.   Osteoporosis: This is the most common bone disease. I this condition bone density decreases and bone become brittle and breaks easily. The incidence of osteoporosis increases rapidly after 50 years of age. Incidence of osteoporosis is more in women than men, and even children may be at risk of developing juvenile osteoporosis. This is asymptomatic. Usually, it’s diagnosed following the fracture.

2.   Bone Infection:  called osteomyelitis, infection of bone tissue is a rare but serious condition. It can happen after a surgery, such as a joint replacement, or may spread to the bones from another part of the body. Pain, swelling, and redness are common symptoms of a bone infection, and antibiotics are a common component of treatment. In some cases, it may need to be surgically removed. 

3.   Osteonecrosis: Due to lack of blood supply, bone tissue dies, a disease called osteonecrosis. In most cases it happens after an injury such as a hip fracture. Prolonged high-dose steroid use can also cause this type of bone necrosis. Once the bone tissue dies, the bone weakens and collapses. Pain that gradually gets worse may indicate osteonecrosis.

4.   Bone Tumors: Bone tumors occur when the uncontrolled growth of cells occurs inside the bone. These tumors can be benign or malignant, although benign (noncancerous) bone tumors that do not impinge on other bone tissue and do not spread are more common.

5.   Osteoarthritis: It is a chronic degenerative joint disease; this is the most common type of arthritis. Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that acts as a cushion between bones breaks down and the bones rub together, causing pain, inflammation, and stiffness. This usually happens after 40 years of age.

6.   Rheumatoid Arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory disorder in which the immune system attacks the body’s tissues, such as the joints in the hands and feet. Unlike the wear-and-tear damage that occurs with osteoarthritis, RA affects the lining of your joints, causing a painful swelling that can eventually result in bone erosion and joint deformity.

7.   Scoliosis: This condition, in which the bones of the spine curve abnormally to the left or right, usually starts just prior to puberty. In some cases, the spinal deformities get worse with time. Its cause is unknown, although a hereditary component is suspected.

8.   Osteopenia:  it is diagnosed when a person’s bone density is lower than it should be. Low bone density can lead to osteoporosis, which causes fractures, pain, and a stooped appearance. It is important to make the changes necessary to improve bone density if you are diagnosed with osteopenia. 

9.   Gout: This is due to the accumulation of excess of uric acid in joints which causes pain, redness, and swelling. The big toe is typically noticeably swollen, but symptoms may also occur in other joints, including the ankle, foot, or knee. Gout may occur due to your diet, or if your kidneys are not properly processing uric acid.

Dr. Rakesh Rai. MS, FRCS, MD, CCT, ASTS Fellow (USA)