What is hip replacement surgery?
Hip replacement or hip arthroplasty is a surgery to replace a damaged hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the old joint with an artificial joint (prosthesis).
Why will you need a hip replacement?
Hip replacement surgery is a treatment for pain in the hip joint which is severe and cannot be controlled by medicine. The deformity is another indication for hip replacement.
Common disease causing damage of the hip joint
1. Osteoarthritis – This is a degenerative condition.
Bilateral hip replacement
As age advances wear and tear of the joint increase causing loss of cartilage in the joint, this is the most common reason for hip replacement surgery. With pain in hip joint people are not able to do their routine activities that involve bending at the hip including walking and sitting,
2. Rheumatoid arthritis – It is a chronic inflammatory condition in which the synovium of the hip joint gets damaged. This causes swelling, pain, and stiffness of the joint.
3. Hip fracture – certain hip fractures may not heal properly causing pain and deformity then hip replacement may be an option.
A traditional hip replacement involves an incision several inches long over the hip joint. Our experts also use a minimally invasive technique that uses 1 or 2 smaller incisions to do the surgery.
What are the risks of hip replacement surgery?
Any surgery can have complications. Some possible complications may include:
- Blood clots in the legs or lungs
- Need for revision or additional hip surgery
- Nerve injury that causes weakness, numbness, or both
You may have other risks depending on your specific health condition. Discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider before the surgery.
Johns Hopkins offers in-person educational sessions to help you prepare for cement surgery. During your class, we'll review important aspects of your care and what to expect before and after surgery. You will be able to ask questions and meet many of the staff who will be caring for you in the hospital.
What happens during hip replacement surgery?
Hip replacement surgery is done under general anesthesia so you will not feel anything and will not be awake during surgery.
Generally, hip replacement surgery follows this process:
The surgeon will remove the damaged parts of the hip joint and replace them with the prosthesis. The hip prosthesis is made up of a stem that goes into the thigh bone , the head joint (ball) that fits into the stem, and a cup that is inserted into the socket of the hip joint. The stem and cup are made of metal. The ball may be made of metal or ceramic. The cup has a liner that may be made of plastic or ceramic. The 2 most common types of artificial hip prostheses used are cemented prostheses and uncemented prostheses. A cemented prosthesis attaches to the bone with surgical cement. An uncemented prosthesis attaches to the bone with a porous surface. The bone grows onto this surface to attach to the prosthesis. Sometimes a combination of the 2 types is used to replace a hip.
- The incision will be closed with stitches or surgical staples.
- A drain may be placed in the incision site to remove the fluid.
- A sterile bandage or dressing will be put on the site.
What happens after hip replacement surgery?
Most patients will start walking soon after hip surgery with support. You must take help of a physiotherapist who will teach you exercises which will help you in walking and making your hip and thigh muscles strong.
Once you are home, it is important to keep the surgical area clean and dry.
You may need to take pain killers for some time. Continue with your exercises at home.