Kidney Stones

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Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones

Do you have kidney stones?

One of the most common problem in kidneys are the development of stones. They may remain in the kidney and grow without causing any symptoms.

They are a very common disease and it causes a major economic and health burden worldwide. Kidney stones can either pass unnoticed into urine if the size is too small or sometimes it may grow up to the size of a golf ball.

Kidney stones usually consist of calcium Oxalates (80%) but also can be in the form of other compounds like citrates, Phosphates, uric acid. Kidney stone formations are considered as a major health concern if associated with other medical conditions like chronic kidney disease, bone loss, and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome.

Some of the more commonly seen Symptoms are:

a) Lower abdomen pain- People suffering from kidney stones often suffer from back pain in the early stages. The pain starts at the back, just near the kidney area. As the condition worsens, the pain might radiate to the groin, lower abdomen, and lower back area.

b) Vomiting or sensation of vomiting-If the pain is severe it can lead to vomiting causing dehydration.

c)Blood or pus in the urine- The color of urine might vary from brown, pink to slightly red with stains of blood. As the kidney stones increase in size they blocks the urethra, thereby causing damage to epithelium causing the passage of blood in the urine. This condition is referred to as hematuria.

d) Burning sensation while passing urine- The most common sign of kidney stones is a sudden urge to urinate. When an individual does try to urinate, the amount of urine excreted is less than normal urine output. In case of a normal volume of urine, if an individual experiences extreme pain, this can be due to infection.

e) The decrease in the passage of urine output- Because of pain, there will be a reflux decrease in the amount of urine.

g) Fever and chills- if kidney stones are associated with infection of urinary tract.

Kidney stones formation:

The common causes of kidney stone formation are having a concentrated urine. If you drink less water then the uric acid concentration in urine increases that makes the urine acidic and increases the chance of formation of stone. So, it’s essential that we drink two to two and half liter of liquids daily.

The risk factors which causes kidney stones:

These stone formation in kidneys are more commonly seen in males compared to females.

  • Most common age group is 40 to 60 yrs. aged people.
  • Drinking less fluid leads to dehydration. If dehydration is chronic there is increased risk of stone formation.
  • Presence of a family history of kidney stones and mostly associated with first degree relatives
  • Past history of stone formation if present can again cause Kidney stones
  • Increased in people having a sedentary lifestyle or suffering from bed bound illness
  • Taking more of high protein and low fiber diet will increase the chances of formation
  • In some cases, the presence of Cystinuria increase the formation of kidney stones
  • Other medical conditions that are associated with stone formations are seen in renal tubular acidosis, recurrent urinary tract infection, hyperparathyroidism.
  • People who overuse vitamin C has high risks of kidney stone formation

If you develop symptoms of kidney stones you must get investigated thoroughly.

Dr.Rakesh Rai. MS, FRCS, MD, CCST.